The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on clean water and sanitation present a huge challenge to Cambodia in terms of accelerating access, reducing disparity and increasing quality of services. Access to improved water supply and sanitation in Cambodia were 75% and 49% respectively in 2015. Cambodia has achieved its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water supply and made progress towards the sanitation target. However, disparities between the poorest and richest are evident. In urban areas, access rates for improved water supply were 78% for the poorest and 99% for the richest, while figures for improved sanitation were 36% and 100% respectively. Compared to the MDGs, the SDGs include the additional need to progressively addressing inequalities, achieving universal access by 2030 and achieving higher level than basic services i.e., safely managed sanitation and water supply. The provision of safe piped water into household premises and the effective management of wastewater (particularly in urban areas) will contribute significantly towards achieving the SDGs. However, low piped water coverage and a lack of wastewater infrastructure and adequate associated management systems present a huge challenge to the timely achievement of the SDGs.